Insulin is a hormone present in our body to control the blood glucose level by converting extra sugar into proteins, lipids, and glycogen. In this way, the glucose level in our blood remains at a normal level and our body performs well. This is the main insulin function in the human body.
Let’s discuss all this step by step in detail.
What is the Function of Insulin? – Insulin Function
From where comes Insulin
The pancreas is the source of this hormone. It contains a large number of ß cells which produce insulin. The pancreas secretes this hormone when we eat foods which contain glucose (Carbohydrates).
This hormone helps in the metabolism of the body. Without this hormone, we cannot live. Insulin depresses blood glucose level in different ways including glycogen synthesis and increasing the cell consumption of glucose. It also stimulates conversion of glucose into proteins and lipids, which reduces the level of glucose.
Insulin also inhibits the hydrolysis of glycogen (breakdown of glycogen into glucose using water) in the liver and muscles.
1. Insulin action on Digestive System
When we eat something it goes straight into the stomach and then goes through various digestion processes. The food is converted into small particles and absorbed by the blood. If the food contains carbohydrates then pancreas secretes the insulin to make use of them for the cellular metabolism.
The excess glucose is stored in different parts of the body like muscles, liver and is used by the body when needed. In this way when we eat, insulin keeps our glucose level in a normal range.
2. Insulin and Circulatory System
Our circulatory system makes sure that everything in the body goes well. When there isn’t enough insulin in the blood then glucose get back into the bloodstream from the storage cells. This increases the glucose level in the body which could cause diabetes and nervous disorders if the level exceeds than the normal range.
On the other hand, if there is insulin in the blood then it maintains our glucose level and everything performs well.
In this way, our circulatory system ensures the proper amount of insulin when needed.
What if Insulin does not function properly?
1. Failure of Insulin Production
Failure of this hormone causes a disease called Diabetes Mellitus. The symptoms of this disease are, high level of blood sugar in the urine, a disturbance of body’s osmotic equilibrium and derangement of the nervous system.
2. Excess of Insulin Production
If excess insulin is produced the utilization of sugar in the body will be too high and its level falls in the blood (hypoglycemia) which upsets nerve and muscle functioning.
The proper functioning of Insulin in the body is very important for the survival. If we want that things go properly then we must take some precautions.
- Avoid excessive use of Cold Drinks
- Do Regular Exercise
- Keep a balance in diet
- Avoid too much use of Alcohol
- Stop Smoking
- Eat vegetables and fruits
- Keep Body Weight normal
I hope after reading this article, you have understood the functions of insulin in the human body.